Freenet is its own in-depended internet built on the ideas of privacy and security. It is resembles a lot of what the internet looked like before the internet really took off. A lot of just html pages with information on them. though with the coming with the standard of html5 this will allow these sites to greatly increase the content ability of them with out adding a huge amount to the network.
Diaspora is being produced by people that want to make social networking easier to control your own information so that it is not just in the hands of the corporations and so you don't have to sell it off to have the comforts of social networking.
Tor is a very large proxy network built to help keep people's privacy intact when the surf the opennet(what most know as the internet) this though can be slow which paved the way for many VPN (virtual private networks) that have sprouted up in resent years to help combat privacy concerns of their users. btguard is one of the paid services have come to help protect bit-torrent users privacy when they download content.
i hope this helps you start taking your privacy back in to your hands and out of those that like to use your privacy for their own self gain.